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Mengapa Harus Kampanye Imunisasi Measles Rubella (MR)

Kategori: Informasi, ditulis oleh Adminsitrator Website
Friday, 28 July 2017 09:24

Guna melengkapi imunisasi dasar lengkap dan menekan angka kesakitan dan kematian anak, maka mulai tahun 2017 Pemerintah akan menambahkan 3 vaksin baru yaitu Measles dan Rubela (MR), Japanese Encephalitis (JE) dan Pnemokukus. Imunisasi MR diberikan untuk melindungi anak Indonesia dari penyakit kelainan bawaan seperti gangguan pendengaran, gangguan penglihatan, kelainan jantung dan retardasi mental yang disebabkan adanya infeksi rubella pada saat kehamilan. Imunisasi JE diberikan untuk melindungi dari radang otak karena infeksi virus Japanese Ensefalitis. Sementara imunisasi Pneumokokus diberikan untuk melindungi anak-anak dari radang paru karena infeksi bakteri pneumokokus.

Adapun rencana aksi pelaksanaan vaksin baru tersebut adalah pelaksanaan kampanye vaksin MR akan menyasar anak usia 9 bulan <15 tahun dan kemudian diikuti dengan pengenalan (introduksi) imunisasi Rubella kedalam program imunisasi nasional memakai vaksin MR menggantikan vaksin campak yang selama ini dipakai. Introduksi vaksin MR ini diberikan pada anak umur 9 bulan, 18 bulan dan kelas 1 SD/sederajat.

Pemberian imunisasi merupakan upaya kesehatan masyarakat yang terbukti paling cost-effective serta berdampak ositif untuk mewujudkan derajat kesehatan ibu dan anak di Indonesia.  Imunisasi tidak hanya melindungi seseorang tetapi juga masyarakat dengan memberikan perlindungan komunitas atau yang disebut dengan herd immunity.

Campak merupakan penyakit yang mudah menular yang disebabkan oleh virus dengan masa inkubasi 8 - 13 hari.Gejala penyakit campak adalah demam, bercak kemerahan pada kulit (rash) disertai dengan batuk dan/atau pilek dan/atau kontungtivitis. Akan tetapi bisa berakibat fatal apabila terjadi komplikasi, misalnya diare berat, radang paru (pneumonia), radang otak (encephalitis), kebutaan bahkan kematian.   Campak merupakan salah satu penyakit yang dapat dicegah dengan imunisasi.  Saat ini target dunia bahkan Indonesia dalam pengendalian campak adalah tercapainya eliminasi campak.

Rubella adalah penyakit akut dan ringan yang sering menginfeksi anak dan dewasa muda yang rentan.Akan tetapi yang menjadi perhatian dalam kesehatan masyarakat adalah efek teratogenik apabila Rubella ini menyerang pada wanita hamil pada trismester pertama.   Infeksi Rubella yang terjadi sebelum konsepsi dan awal kehamilan dapat menyebabkan abortus, kematian janin atau sindrom rubella kongenital (Congenital Rubella Syndrom/CRS) pada bayi yang dilahirkan.

Sebagai bagian dari masyarakat global, Indonesia telah berkomitmen untuk mencapai eliminasi campak dan pengendalian Rubella (Congenital Rubella Syndrom) pada tahun 2020. Vaksin MR yang digunakan adalah produksi PT Biofarma, Bandung dan telah mendapatkan rekomendasi WHO serta ijin edar dari Badan POM. Vaksin ini aman dan telah digunakan di lebih 141 negara di dunia.

Berdasarkan Fatwa MUI No.4 Tahun 2016 bahwa imunisasi pada dasarnya dibolehkan (mubah) sebagai bentuk ikhtiar untuk mewujudkan kekebalan tubuh (imunitas) dan mencegah terjadinya suatu penyakit tertentu. Dalam hal jika seseorang yang tidak diimunisasi akan menyebabkan kematian, penyakit berat atau kecacatan permanen yang mengancam jiwa, berdasarkan pertimbangan ahli yang kompeten dan dipercaya, maka imunisasi hukumnya wajib.

 

Kasus campak dan rubella masih banyak ditemukan di Indonesia.  Untuk itu diperlukan upaya percepatan untuk dapat mencapai target eliminasi penyakit campak dan rubella/CRS.  
Strategi yang dilakukan untuk mencapai target tersebut adalah:

  1. Penguatan imunisasi rutin untuk mencapai cakupan imunisasi campak 95% di semua tingkatan.
  2. Pelaksanaan crash program campak di 183 Kabupaten/Kota pada bulan Agustus-September 2016 (untuk provinsi Jawa Barat dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Pangandaran dan Kabupaten Bandung Barat).
  3. Pelaksanaan kampanye imunisasi MR yaitu pemberian imunisasi MR kepada sasaran usia 9 bulan sampai dengan <15 tahun secara bertahap dalam 2 fase, sebagai berikut:
  • Fase 1: bulan Agustus - September 2017 di seluruh Pulau Jawa.
  • Fase 2: bulan Agustus - September 2018 di seluruh Pulau Sumatera, Kalimantan,  Sulawesi, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku dan Papua
  1. Introduksi vaksin MR ke dalam imunisasi rutin.

Target yang diharapkan adalah ≥ 95 % dari sasaran, yang secara nasional ditargetkan sebanyak 185.000 anak (Pusdatin, Kemenkes). Berdasarkan hasil pendataan kampanye Imunisasi MR di Kabupaten Sukoharjo akan menjangkau sasaran anak usia 9 bulan sampai 15 tahun sebanyak 195.418 anak, dengan perincian :

  1. Bulan Agustus 2017

Siswa PAUD/TK (usia 60 – 72 bulan)

: 26.384anak

Siswa SD/MI

: 75.362 anak

Siswa SLTP/MTs

: 34.990 anak

 

                                           

                                   

 

 

 

  1. Bulan September 2017

Anak usia 9  - 59 bulan                                                   : 53.692 anak

Pelaksanaan kampanye imunisasi MR dilaksanakan di 2.502 pos imunisasi yang terdiri dari :  670pos PAUD/TK, 554pos SD/MI, 90pos SLTP/MTs, 1182 Posyandu dan 6 RS.  Adapun rumah sakit yang melayani kampanye imunisasi MR adalah :

  1. RS PKU Muhammadiyah
  2. RS Nirmala Suri
  3. RS Dr. Oen Solo Baru
  4. RSO Prof Dr. Soeharso
  5. RS UNS
  6. RSUD Sukoharjo

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Komentar (total Komentar : 2)

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Tanggal : Monday, 28 August 2017 16:30

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